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I would like to ask: Which sheikh is being referred to here (Khaled bin Ahmed or Amr bin Usman)..... and how many..

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Assalamaualkum wa rahmatullahe wabarkatuhu 

I am a student studying (Manzumatul Jazariah) System of Jazariah..... in the chapter (Baab) Makharijal Huruf..... i was told that sheikhul jazari was referring to Khaled bin Ahmed but I was told another time about another sheikh named Seeboi (Amr bin Usman.... freed slave of Banu Ka'ab, who passed away in Medina).... The first is said to believe that there was 17 Makharijal Huruf and the latter sheikh said 16 Makharijal Huruf.

I would like to ask: Which sheikh is being referred to here (Khaled bin Ahmed or Amr bin Usman)..... and how many Makharijal Huruf are present in tajweed (17 or 16)?

JazakAllah Khair

Walakum assalam wa rahmatullahe wabarkatuhu


Wa alaikum assalaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.

Baarak Allah feekum.  Studying manthoomah al-muqaddimah by Imam Ibn Al-Jazaree is an honor as a classic work in the rules tajweed of the Qur’an.  We should always refer back to the old works written by scholars of tajweed to use as our guidance.

Imam Ibn Al-Jazaree may Allah be merciful to him, in his poem entitled   stated:

, meaning:

The articulation points of the letters are 17   

According to those who chose it by  examination.

Imam Ibn Al-Jazaree therefore informed us in his poem on tajweed, that there was a difference of opinion with the different scholars of the Arabic language as to the number of articulation points for the letters of the Arabic alphabet and that those who examined it carefully, meaning Al-Khaleel bin Ahmed Al-Faraaheedee (died 170 Hijaraa) the sheikh of Sibawayy and scholar of the Arabic language and grammar, stated there were 17 different articulation points.  

Imam Sibawayy, (the student of Imam Al-Khaleel bin Ahmed) whose name was Abu Bishr Umar bin ‘Uthman bin Qumbar, the freed slave of bin Al-Haarith bin Ka’b chose 16 articulation points for the letters of the Arabic alphabet, eliminating the articulation point of   for the medd letters, and instead stated they used the articulation points of other letters –meaning the articulation point of hamzah for alif, two lips for , and middle of tongue for , and not the empty space in the mouth and throat.

Al-Furraa’ (his full name was Abu Zakariyya Yahya bin Az-Zayaad, died 207), an imam of Kufa in Arabic language and grammar wrote that there were only 14 articulation points for the Arabic letters.  Imam Al-Furraa’ also eliminated the articulation point of  and in addition stated that the letters , , and  had one shared articulation point instead of three separate, but close articulation points.  

The choice of Imam Ibn Al-Jazaree and most of the scholars of tajweed after him was that of 17 different articulation points for the letters of the Arabic alphabet.

Wa iyyaakum wa-l-muslimeen. 

Wa assalaam alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.

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