I have two questions

1.  In some explanations of tafkheem and isti'la they look like the same  .As I know Ra’ has instifal but when It comes with fatha or dhummah it will have tafkheem. If I rise my inner part of my tongue I think it will be isti'la.  I'm thinking not to rise my tongue but it difficult to make it tafkheem or maybe I misunderstand the concept


2. As I know fatha mean open.  It mean our voice come out from mouth smoothly without or with minimal disturbance.  I heard  many good recitors and found the concept is there.  But some recitors, when they pronounce tafkheem I can hear their voice go to the roof more clear if it comes with madd. Can you give some explanation about this? Thank you.



Wa alaikum assalaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.

1.  is a permanent characteristic of letter and considered a right of the letter, tafkheem on the other hand is not a characteristic, but instead a due.  Meaning if a letter has  as its right, its due is tafkheem.  Please see:'laa'_al-istifaal.htm   A letter must have tafkheem in all cases to be a letter of , and so letters such as ,  , and alif which sometimes have tafkheem and sometimes don’t, cannot have the intrinsic characteristic of .  The mechanism for tafkheem is the same whether a letter has  or not.  The mechanism of tafkheem is raising up the posterior part of the tongue and at the same time, focusing the sound to the roof of the mouth and filling the mouth with an echo.  So you should raise your tongue up,  that is the correct way to make tafkheem.

2.  There are levels of tafkheem for the letters of  Please see the lesson here: , and it is true that when there is an alif after a letter of  it has the highest level of tafkheem. 

You are very welcome.