What is the difference between Alif and Hamzah? Can you please explain the differences and their usage model?
The true alif is a saakin letter after a fathah , as in the word : Some list the letter alif as in the Arabic alphabet as to make clear that it is always preceded by a fathah and is always saakin.
The regular hamzah is a letter that looks like the head of the letter and is pronounced from the deepest part of the throat. It can be written over or below different letters as a holding place for the hamzah, not part of the letter. One of the letters the hamzah can "sit" on is the alif, such as in: , or it can be written on a ya': , or a as in: . It can be written on a "tooth" demonstrated in the word: , or have no particular place to rest: .