Does the "Ta" marboota means that the noun is singular and the "Ta" maftooha symbolizes plural? Is there a difference of..

Assalamu Aleikum

A) I read the lesson on the Ta marboota and the Ta maftooha and their different occurrences in the Quran. Thus I would like to know:

1) Does the "Ta" marboota means that the noun is singular and the "Ta" maftooha symbolizes plural?

2) Is there a difference of meaning when a noun is written with "ta" marboota and "ta" mafhoota? In other words does the word "djannah" (garden) written with "ta" marboota have the same meaning with the one written
"djannat" with "ta" maftooha?

3) I also read Imam Al jazaree's poem on the female "Ta" entitled "baa bu at Taa ati". I would like to know:
a- How do we have to understand them?
b- Do you have an English translation of them, for I think I have a slight understanding of them?

B) This question concerns the mudood.

- Aside from the recitation of Hafs, do other recitations (Khalaf, Warsh, Qaloon, as Soosee or Al-Bazee) allow a mudood of 7 or even 8 vowel counts? In other words is it even permissible to have a mudood greater than the limit which is 6?
May Allah ease your task inshallah
ma'a salam  

Answer

Wa alaikum assalaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

Because of the number of questions, we will put repeat the questions one by one with the answers.

1) Does the "Ta" marboota means that the noun is singular and the "Ta" maftooha symbolizes plural?

 Many times this is the case, but not always.  The reason for the lesson on the female  is to explain the times where the  is written as a , even though it isn’t plural, or there is a difference in the different recitations as to whether it is read in the single form or plural form.

2) Is there a difference of meaning when a noun is written with "ta" marboota and "ta" mafhoota? In other words does the word "djannah" (garden) written with "ta" marboota have the same meaning with the one written
"djannat" with "ta" maftooha?

There is no difference in meaning between the words as long as the “dagger alif” denoting plural isn’t written in one of the words.  In other words, the word  written with the letter , and written with the letter  have the same word meaning, and in the same line and  have the same word meaning. Of course the sentence structure can be different depending on grammar and word placement, etc.,  when comparing the individual words written with a  or a .    

3) I also read Imam Al jazaree's poem on the female "Ta" entitled "baa bu at Taa-aat". I would like to know:
a- How do we have to understand them?
b- Do you have an English translation of them, for I think I have a slight understanding of them?

a. The section on taa’aat in the tajweed poem written by Imam Ibn Al-Jazaree is to point out the words that are normally written with a  but are written with a  in these cases.  He usually points out the surah name for each, but not always. The reason we need to know this section is when we are reading by memory and stop on one of the words, if it is written with a  we stop with a  saakinah, but if it is written with a , we stop with a saakinah in the recitation of Hafs ‘an ‘Aasim.

b.  The poem in this section gives the words and their locations, or just the words.  The section on the ta’aat explains it, please see http://www.abouttajweed.com/the_lessons_on_the_female_ha'_written_with_a_ta'.htm and a word by word translation would not help without the explanation. 

This question concerns the mudood.

Aside from the recitation of Hafs, do other recitations (Khalaf, Warsh,
Qaloon, as soosee or Al-Bazee) allow a mudood of 7 or even 8 vowel counts? In other words is it even permissible to have a mudood greater than the limit which is 6?

The greatest length of a medd is 6 vowel counts for all ways of recitation.  Khalaf ‘an Hamzah and Warsh lengthen and 6 vowel counts.  Qaloon lengthens either two or four vowel counts  and four vowel counts .  As-Soosiyy and Al-Bazee both lengthen two vowel counts and four vowel counts.  All of the preceding are for tareeq Ash-Shatibiyyah.

Jazakum Allahu khairan.
Wa assalaam alaikum wa rahmatullah.