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I am just learning the rules pertaining to noon saakinah and tanwin. The rules make sense to me but I am not quite sure about..
One last thing that I find confusing is what is technically meant by saying that the vowels are produced from an approximate area of the throat while the corresponding consonants waw and ya are from specific places in the mouth.
Wa alaikum assalaam.
You are most welcome.
We are quite amazed how much tajweed you understand and the details in your questions, and pray that you will soon take the shahadah so you can apply your knowledge of tajweed in your worship.
In the ikhfa’ of the saakinah, the tongue should not touch any part of the mouth, including the back part. If the tongue were to touch the posterior portion of the mouth, or close it off, the sound would be very similar to the . The ghunnah sound, or nasalization, does not require the posterior portion of the mouth to be close off for it to be emitted. You are quite correct about the position of the tongue changing depending on the letter following the saakinah, and this affects the sound too so that the before a sounds different than the before a .
The sound during the is approximately 75 % part ghunnah and 25% part letter, though this percentage varies slightly depending on the letter after the saakinah. If it were 100% ghunnah then the sound would be completely cut off when closing off the nostrils. During the idghaam with ghunnah, the sound should be 50% of the letter and 50% ghunnah.
The sound of the long is produced by lowering of the jaw, not dropping of the jaw. The two terms may sound similar, but they are quite different. When one says a long there is a retraction of the jaw, and that is what the term “lowering” refers to, not a physical drop in the jaw, but a retraction movement, such as in the English "E".
If you let your vocal cords vibrate by making a simple sound like the “aaaa” sound said when a doctor looks in your throat, and keeping that sound change the position of your mouth, opening the mouth horizontally, then rounding lips, and then lowering of the jaw, it should demonstrate the principle of the vibration of the vocal chords and the accompany mouth and jaw movements for each of three letters, the alif, the lengthened and the lengthened . The only thing that has changed is the mouth and jaw position for each of the sounds, the sound produced by the vocal chords vibrating remains the same. The sound is produced by the non-specific area in the throat and mouth and accompanying it is a specific jaw or mouth movement. That is the meaning of an approximate area; you can not specifically identify the place the sounds location. The voweled is produced specifically from the two lips and the voweled is produced specifically from the middle of the tongue.
You are very welcome, and we ask Allah to guide you to the shahadah soon and grant you useful knowledge as a Muslim, including knowledge of the Qur'an and its recitation.