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What does "3. Knowledge of what rules change in the letters due to the order of letters" exactly mean? & It is relating to the difference in pronouncing a harf..

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Assalamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh,
My Respected Teachers,
1) I was studying the last section (called 'Its principles') on '', but was not able to fully understand the third point that you have mentioned. Tajweed is based on 4 principles but what does "3. Knowledge of what rules change in the letters due to the order of letters" exactly mean?
Also if you permit me, I would like to ask another question...
2) It is relating to the difference in pronouncing a harf with sakun and a harf with shaddah. Since I was young, I had been taught that letters that have shaddah are pronounced with more strength than letters with sukoon. But through your website, I was informed that this is not the case. Since a mushaddad letter is really two letters, a letter with sukoon and a second mutaharrik letter, I have understood it to mean that letters with shaddah must be pronounced with the same strength and duration as the sukoon. Dear Teacher, if this the case... then why is that a qalqalah letter with shaddah if stopped at pronounced with more strength then a qalqalah letter also if stopped at but is with sukoon ?  I mean are not both cases supposed to be pronounced the same way especially since they are both qalqalah kubrah... then why the difference ?
For example in surah Lahab, the first ayah ends in "...wa tab-b(a)". But the remaining ayahs all end with lesser strength and quicker pace ie "... wa maa kasab(a)". Can you please explain to me the difference in pronunciation even though they are both qalqalah kubrah.
I would appreciate your explanation as always, Jazakumullahu Khaira..


Wa alaikum assalaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

1.  An example of rules changing due to the order of the letters would be a  saakinah.  If it is followed by one of the six throat letters, it is read clearly.  If however, it is followed by a different letter, the rule changes to an idhgaam, iqlab, or  ikhfa’,.  Another example would be a medd letter.  If a medd letter is followed by a hamzah we have either  or  and we will lengthen it four or five vowel counts, if on the hand it is followed by a shaddah, we will have .    The same holds for many rules of tajweed. 


2.  It seems you are confusing the sound on the shaddah with the sound of the qalqalah.  A letter with a shaddah is pronounced as two letters, each pronounced with a different mechanism, the first with a collision of the two participating parts of articulation, the second with a separation of the two participating parts of articulation, assuming we are continuing on a non-qalqalah letter and also when stopping on a qalqalah letter.

 In the case of the qalqalah letter with a shaddah and we are stopping on the word, again we have collision of the two participating parts of articulation for the first letter, and separation of the two participating parts of articulation for the second letter without any accompanying jaw or mouth movement.  See: and

The qalqalah kubraa itself is not stronger when there is a shaddah on it, but because we have two letters (referring to any of the five qalqalah letters) that have strong characteristics, one being formed by collision and the second formed by separation, the strength of the two letters (of the shaddah) will be apparent in the sound of the collision followed by the separation. 

You need to separate the sound of the qalqalah itself (formed by the separation of the letters) from the sound of the collision and then separation that occurs because of the shaddah.   The qalqalah is formed the same way and with the same strength when it is the last letter and we are stopping on it, whether the letter has a shaddah on it or not.  The letter with a shaddah itself though, is formed twice, once with collision, once with separation, thus giving strength in the sound of the letter because of it being heard twice.  

Insha’ Allah this makes this clearer to you. 

Wa iyyaaakum.  Wa assalaam alaikum.

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