The is defined in the modern study of sounds as: Pressure on a part or a specific letter of the word, so that its sound is a little louder than that of the juxtaposed letters.
This accent ( ) varies from language to language, and from dialect to dialect. An important thing to note here is that in as far as the Qur’anic recitation goes the term is a modern term describing what occurs in recitation passed down through generations from the mouth of the Prophet, . Making an “accent” at the places that will be described necessary by all certified scholars of the Qur’an, but the actual term may be different. In the Glorious Qur’an the is noted, and Allah knows best, in the complete rules of recitation in five different circumstances. We will discuss the first two circumstances in this lesson and the other three, insha’ Allah, in the next lesson.
The first circumstance of the in recitation
Stopping on a word that that has a shaddah on the last letter.
All of these are examples where the last letter of the word has a shaddah. We know that a shaddah on a letter indicates that the letter is divided in to two letters as far as formation of the letters goes. The first is formed by collision ( ) of the two articulation bodies , where as the second is formed by separation
( ) of the two articulating bodies; this is when the reader is continuing reading and not stopping on the word. When stopping on a word like this, we stop with one saakin letter, meaning this letter is formed by collision ( ) of the two articulating bodies. It is then as if one letter has been dropped from the reading. It is for this reason that the learned reciters of the Qur’an warn of the necessity of an accent on this last letter, actually beginning on the letter preceding it, to point out to the listener that this one letter, is actually two. We drop the vowel of the last letter of a word when stopping, but do not eliminate the letter. An exception to the in this case are the noon and meem with shaddah on them. These two letters with a shaddah have the most complete ghunnah. This long ghunnah lets the listener know that there are two letters. Stopping on the word is therefore different than stopping on the word and stopping on is different than stopping on , so as stated, there is no need for an accent ( ) in the case of stopping on a word that ends with a noon or meem with a shaddah
Another exception, Allah knows best, is stopping on a qalqalah letter that has a shaddah. When stopping on a word ending with a qalqalah letter with a shaddah, both letters of the shaddah are pronounced. Examples are in the following words: and
When stopping on either of these words both and both are pronounced. The first in the word is pronounced with a sukoon, and the second is pronounce with a qalqalah. The same can be said about the two in the word . The is then left out in this case, unless the qalqalah letter with a shaddah is preceded by a medd letter, such as in:and for it then falls in to the third circumstance of , which will be discussed subsequently, insha’ Allah.
The second circumstance of the in recitation.
There are two cases:
1. This case occurs when pronouncing a that has a shaddah and the letter before it has a dhammah or a fath.
There is a in these cases due to the possibility of incorrectly reciting a medd (lengthening) or lengthening the leen. In the example of and the and are preceded by a vowel of its own category, meaning the is preceded by a dhammah, and the is preceded by a kasrah. There is no lengthening here, and to avoid it, the and are read with an accent ( ), making clear to the listener that there is no lengthening. Pressure on the letter cuts short its time, and therefore excludes the possibility of lengthening it. The same can be said of the and that have a shaddah and are preceded by a fath, as in , and . Fear of the reader creating an inappropriate lengthened leen letter necessitates a .
These are the first two of the five circumstances of the , insha’ Allah, we will continue with the other circumstances in the next lesson.